The following sites have been selected to represent the different aspects of geology and landscape in the district. Not all sites have something to see; many are solely of historical interest as a record of an important or interesting discovery.
Some sites are not strictly geological but have a geological connection. Geological sites are therefore defined in their widest sense and include, for example, buildings, walls, wells, spas, springs, graves, boreholes, plaques, landslips and viewpoints.
This is not a complete list of geological sites in the district. Others will be added and descriptions expanded as further research is carried out.
Not all of the sites here described are accessible. Some sites are on private land and can only be viewed from footpaths that pass through or alongside the site. Inclusion of a site on this list does not, therefore, imply any right of access. Please remember not to trespass on private land.
Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs)
No geological SSSIs have been notified in the district.
Local Geological Sites (LoGS)
BILLERICAY. Norsey Wood Nature Reserve (TQ 691 955)
The reserve has a varied geology, which consists of London Clay, Claygate Beds, Bagshot Sand and Bagshot Pebble Bed. There are no exposures but rounded pebbles are visible in the steep paths.
LANGDON HILLS. Langdon Hills Country Park (TQ 683 866)
London Clay and Claygate Beds with Bagshot Sand capping the highest ground. This in turn is capped by Stanmore Gravel (formerly called ‘pebble gravel’), the origin of which is still not fully understood. Disused sand and gravel pits exist in the woods. Spectacular views over the Thames Estuary. Part of the site is in Thurrock District.
LANGDON HILLS. Lincewood, part of Langdon Nature Reserve (TQ 675 873)
An isolated, wooded hill known as Lincewood with an identical geology to the Langdon Hills. The hill is essentially an isolated patch of Bagshot Sand overlying Claygate Beds and London Clay, with the summit capped with Stanmore Gravel (‘pebble gravel’). There is a possibility of creating permanent exposures in Bagshot Sand and Pebble Gravel. The reserve is owned by Essex Wildlife Trust.
PITSEA. St. Michael’s Hill (TQ 738 878)
Abandoned River Thames cliff line. The hill is an example of landslipped ground, with fine views over the modern Thames Valley.